Technical Information

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Silicon

Atomic Number: 14
Group: 14 or IV A
Atomic Weight: 28.0855
Period: 3
Melting Point: 1414 °C / 2577.2 °F
Density: 2.3290 g/cm3
Thermal Expansion: 2.6 µm•m−1•K−1 (at 25 °C)
Thermal Conductivity: 149 W•m−1•K−1
Electrical Resistivity: at 20 °C: 10 Ω•m3
Band Gap: 1.12 eV (at 300 K)
Young’s Modulus: 130-188 GPa
Shear Modulus: 51-80 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 97.6 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.064 – 0.28
Mohs Hardness: 7
Knoop Hardness: 1150
CAS Number: 7440-21-3
Transmission Range: 1.2 to 15 μm, best from 3-5μm
Refractive Index: 3.4223 @ 5 μm
Reflection Loss: 46.2% at 5 μm (2 surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient: 0.01 cm-1 at 3 μm
dn/dT: 160 x 10-6 /°C (3)
dn/dμ: 0 : 10.4 μm
Elastic Coefficients: C11=167; C12=65; C44=80 (4)
Apparent Elastic Limit: 124.1MPa (18000 psi)
Solubility: Insoluble in Water
Class/Structure: Cubic diamond, Fd3m

Germanium

Atomic Number: 32
Group: 14 or IV A
Atomic Weight: 72.64
Period: 4
Melting Point: 938.25 °C / 1720.85 °F
Density: 5.3234 g/cm3
Thermal Expansion: 6.0 µm•m−1•K−1
Thermal Conductivity: 60.2 W•m−1•K−1
Electrical Resistivity: 1 Ω•m at 20°C
Band Gap: 0.67 eV (at 300 K)
Young’s Modulus: 103 GPa
Shear Modulus: 41 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 75 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.26
Mohs Hardness: 6.0
Knoop Hardness: 780
CAS Number: 7440-56-4
Transmission Range: 1.8 to 23 μm, best from 8-12μm
Refractive Index: 4.0026 at 11 μm (1)(2)
Reflection Loss: 53% at 11 μm (Two surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient: <0.027 cm-1 @ 10.6 μm
dn/dT: 396 x 10-6 /°C (2)(6)
dn/dμ: Almost constant
Elastic Coefficients: C11=129; C12=48.3; C44=67.1 (5)
Apparent Elastic Limit: 89.6 MPa (13000 psi)
Solubility: Insoluble in water
Class/Structure: Cubic Diamond, Fd3m

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